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FENIAN AND OTHER RAIDS   229

transform Canada into an Irish-American Republic it will be convenient to glance briefly at the history of the militia in the Maritime Provinces.

Up to the year 1862, the militia of Nova Scotia, while it had on many occasions done gallant service, was very imperfectly organized. The companies elected their own commissioned officers, but knowledge of military affairs was not made a condition of the granting of a commission; in fact there was no means of acquiring such knowledge. The spread of the volunteer movement, however, brought a keener interest in military training. Volunteer companies were more efficient than militia companies, and the training acquired by the former was gradually ex-tended to the latter by the offer of commissions in the militia to men of the volunteers. In 1860, the eight companies of volunteers in Halifax were organized into a battalion known as the Halifax Volunteer Battalion, afterwards the 63rd. This regiment therefore ranks third in seniority in the Dominion, the Prince of Wales' Regiment being first and the Queen's Own second. Provision was made in 1862 for regular drill instruction. The men provided their own clothing and accoutrements, and as there was no regulation as to style and colour of uniform the effect was somewhat bizarre. In 1864 a committee of officers decided to recommend "rifle green" as the most suitable colour, and this was adopted by all the companies except the Scottish Rifles, which preferred a dark plaid. Two years later the Government issued overcoats to the men, and the muzzle-loading long Enfield was replaced by the short rifle and sword bayonet.

In Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the militia consisted at first of all white male inhabitants from 16 to 60. The age of service was afterward changed to 18 to 60. The New Brunswick Militia Act of 1862 divided the force into two classes: Active Militia, 18 to 45; Sedentary, 45 to 60. The former was divided into three classes: "A", volunteers; "B", unmarried men and


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