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210   MILITARY HISTORY OF CANADA

had there been any leader available with sufficient resolution to seize the opportunity, or any sort of unanimity among the rank and file, the rebels might quite conceivably have marched into Toronto, as Mackenzie advised, on the night of the 4th without serious opposition, taken possession of the arms, and won to their support the numerous class of men who follow a winning cause. What actually happened was that the rebel leaders disagreed among themselves, and vacillated from day to day between one proposed course of action and another, while their men deserted.

Meanwhile the Lieutenant-Governor had been rudely awakened from his sleep on the. night of the 4th by reports that the rebels were about to attack the city. Colonel Moodie, a veteran of the War of 1812, had been shot while attempting to ride through the rebel lines. Others, more successful, had brought word of the insurrection. The bells of the city were ringing furiously. Head hurried to the City Hall, and saw to the issue of arms to the citizens of all classes who rallied about him. All men were loyal when the rebels were outside, and were threatening the city. Word was sent to Colonel MacNab in Hamilton, to Bonnycastle in Kingston, and to other officers in various parts of the province. Colonel Fitz-Gibbon had taken charge of the organization in Toronto.

Head, it will be remembered, had sent every available man of the regulars out of the province. Fortunately, in spite of official neglect, the spirit of the militia of Upper Canada was by no means dead, thanks to the zeal and enthusiasm of a few far-seeing men like James Fitz-Gibbon. FitzGibbon for several years past had been de-voting much of his time to the organization and drilling of rifle corps in Toronto. Bonnycastle says that the effective militia of Upper Canada in 1837 exceeded 36,000 rank and file, consisting of 72 regiments of infantry, 5 organized companies of artillery, and 18 squadrons of cavalry. He admits, however, that this force could not at that time be said to be efficient, as it lacked


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