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116 MILITARY HISTORY OF CANADA

 

Sir Guy Carleton, who as Lord Dorchester returned to Canada in 1786 as Governor-in-Chief, added two battalions, raised in Canada, to the 60th Royal Americans, now the 60th Royal Rifles. The two new battalions, according to Mr. Benjamin Sulte, were placed under the command of Colonel Louis Joseph Fleury Deschambault, an officer in H.M. 109th Regiment, whose father had been the richest and one of the most patriotic men in New France before the change of flags. The two battalions so raised served not only in Canada, but in the Antilles, Jersey, Guernsey, and elsewhere, but the officers finding that they were considered, for the purpose of promotion, etc., to be without the pale of the regular army, finally asked for and were accorded disbandment.

In 1791, the Constitutional Act was passed, dividing Quebec into two provinces, Upper and Lower Canada, and from that time until the passage of the Act of Union in 1841, Upper and Lower Canada had distinct militia forces, under separate staffs and with separate laws.

There was a war scare in Canada in 1796. Emissaries of the French Government were busy in Canada attempting to stir up the French Canadians against British rule, others were at Washington trying to make trouble between the United States and Britain. As a result, the "Royal Canadian Volunteer Regiment" was raised in the summer of 1796, at the suggestion of Lord Dorchester. This regiment consisted of two battalions, one composed of French Canadians, recruited in Quebec City; the other largely of English-speaking men, in the Montreal district and Upper Canada. The regiment was raised, equipped, and administered as a regular regiment, and the officers and men under their terms of enlistment were liable for military service anywhere in the colony. The uniform was of the regular infantry cut, with scarlet coat, and blue facings. The regimental motto, duly emblazoned on its colours, was "Try Us." The signing of the Treaty- of Amiens, October 1st, 1801, restored peace between Eng-


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