114 MILITARY HISTORY OF CANADA
feated and all his vessels but four taken or destroyed. The Continental land force, being thus unprotected at Crown Point, blew up the fort and retreated up the lake. This left the way clear for Burgoyne's campaign in 1777 down Lake Champlain, a campaign which was to end at Saratoga in humiliating surrender on October 17th.
For some months after the invaders had been expelled Carleton's time was largely taken up providing for the British regulars and Hessians. But he endeavoured to place the Canadian militia on a sound footing, and, up to 1783, he and his successor, Haldimand, maintained on a war footing, three companies of Canadian militia, raised by voluntary enlistment, and detailed a certain number of non-commissioned officers from these companies and from the regular regiments to act as instructors of the sedentary militia, who had been enrolled after the old French method. But he realized that it was necessary to have passed as quickly as possible a militia ordinance, clearly defining the authority of the Government and the duties to be imposed upon the people. The Legislative Council, in 1777, passed sixteen ordinances, one of which, prepared at the suggestion of Carleton, provided for the regulation of the militia along the lines which prevailed, or were sup-posed to have prevailed, during the French regime. Critics of the measure declared that the Council was misled by the over-zealous seigneurs who had seats at the Board, and charged that the new ordinance established, as a common rule, obligations which were in New France imposed on the militia only under extra-ordinary circumstances. As a matter of fact, the new ordinance subjected the inhabitants to rigorous military service, such as to bear arms beyond Canada for an in-definite time, to do agricultural labour for absentees serving in the army, etc; such service to be gratuitously performed, under heavy penalties for refusal or neglect. Provision was also made for calling out the militia for corvee, or statute labour, a very important duty, particularly with the need of making and keeping in repair the