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amidst a shower of bullets, seized the ladder and drew it inside the barricade. This post was held by Captain Dumas' militia company, and its relief was finally effected by Captain Marcoux's company reinforced by a few regulars. It is interesting to note that Joseph Papineau, the father of the tribune of Lower Canada, served as a volunteer in Captain Marcoux's company.

General Montgomery being killed, Colonel Arnold wounded, and many of the rank and file killed, wounded, or prisoners, the Continentals abandoned the assault. They invested Quebec until spring, but disease and privation wrought havoc in their ranks, and in May, 1776, the siege was raised. The invaders retreated to Three Rivers, but were vigorously followed by Carleton, who had received reinforcements. He pressed them so closely that he captured their artillery and stores, and changed their retreat into a rout. Some of them took refuge at Sorel, but that post, held by the Continentals under Major Butterfield, was obliged to surrender, together with a detachment sent to its relief.

In June, 1776, Congress despatched to Canada further reinforcements under General Sullivan, but about the only work Sullivan did was to issue, in the name of his Government, an animated and characteristic address to the Canadian people. Three special commissioners—Benjamin Franklin, Charles Caroll, of Carolton (who was accompanied by his brother, afterwards Archbishop Caroll of Baltimore), and Samuel Chase—were sent as delegates to the Canadians. Their embassy signally failed; for the inhabitants had by this time learned by experience to regard the Continentals as enemies rather than as friends.

The failures of the Continentals and the energy of the British had a depressing effect upon the disloyal, and encouraged the French-Canadian clergy and gentry to re-double their efforts to wean the mass of the people from their indifference or worse. The merchants of Montreal and the Canadian habitants found the ill-provided, half-

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