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THE STRUGGLE FOR CANADA   83

Isle-aux-Coudres, about sixty miles below Quebec. With the hope of entrapping French vessels his fleet sailed under French colours, but succeeded in capturing only two store-ships. Bougainville, with two frigates (La Pomone of thirty-two guns, and L'Atalante of thirty-six) and fifteen or sixteen transports carrying troops and stores for Quebec, had passed up the river before Durell reached the St. Lawrence. By the end of June the whole British fleet had reached the basin of Quebec. The troops were at once landed, and camps formed on the island of Orleans, and afterwards on the south side of the river, opposite the city, near Point Levis. Hostilities commenced in earnest, about July 1st, before which date, however, several minor encounters had occurred.

The Marquis de Vaudreuil, General Montcalm, and the Chevalier de Levis had arrived at Quebec in May. Mont.-calm at once devoted himself to the organization of the military forces and the defences of the city, while Levis made a thorough reconnaissance of Quebec and its environs. 1Vlontcalm felt that the steep cliff above Cape Diamond would make it impossible to land a force west of the town and concluded that the enemy would be disposed to follow the plan attempted by Walley during Phip's attack, namely, to force a crossing of the St. Charles river below Quebec, and gain the plain in rear of the city by climbing the steep hill skirting at some distance the right bank of the St. Charles. As little dependence could be placed upon the ancient walls for withstanding a regular siege, a possible landing on the Beauport shore was provided against by means of a series of intrenchments and redoubts extending from the banks of the St. Charles to the Montmorency. The defensive line thus created was all the more formidable in that the shore was skirted throughout its entire length by a stretch of very wide, muddy flats. Near the mouth of the St. Charles, a strong boom was constructed, and protected by a battery of four guns situated on the left bank. A bridge of boats connected the intrenched camp with the city. The right of


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