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militia, whose authority was not only acknowledged but rigidly enforced. The militia of Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers were frequently exercised. The Quebec militia included a carefully trained artillery company, and the Montreal town militia, a battalion of infantry. The governors in cases of emergency decided what quotas were required from each seigniory and town, and forwarded a requisition therefor to the town majors of Quebec, Montreal, Three Rivers, etc., and to the seigneurs in the rural districts. These officials in turn decided upon the strength of the quotas of the various parishes, and made requisitions on the captains of militia, who in turn raised the men by a draft, and marched them under escort into the nearest town, where the town major furnished each militiaman with a gun, a capote or worsted toque, a Canadian cloak, a cotton shirt, a cap, a pair of leggings, a pair of moccasins, and a blanket.

Many duties of a civil nature in connection with the administration of the law, the regulation of statute labour, the making and maintenance of roads and other public utilities were imposed upon the captains of militia, these useful officials being compensated in times of peace by grants of powder and ball.

Duquesne, having received orders to persist in excluding English traders from the Ohio valley, decided on the establishment of several new posts. Under his directions Contrecceur, an officer of the Colony Troops, built a substantial fort, named Fort Duquesne, near the confluence of the rivers Monongahela and Alleghany with the river Ohio, on the site of the modem city of Pitts-burg. Another, Fort Venango, was built at the junction of the Riviere-aux-Bceufs with the Alleghany.

In 1753, Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, contending that the Ohio valley was British domain, despatched thither a force under George Washington, with orders to establish himself there, and to notify the French that they were unlawfully occupying British territory. In

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