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THE STRUGGLE FOR CANADA   61

In 1748, by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, peace was concluded between the contending European powers. By this treaty, all captured territories were to revert to their former owners, and in the following year Louisbourg was handed back to the French.

In 1752, there arrived in Canada as Governor, a soldier-sailor whose name figures in the military history of Canada as the reorganizer of the Colony Troops and Canadian militia, the Marquis Duquesne de Menneville. This old warrior, a rigid disciplinarian, was scandalized by the condition of the military establishment. Many of the commandants of posts were concerned in trade, and careless about their proper duties. The officers were reluctant to go on active service, and the composition of the troops was defective, men too old and boys too young being enlisted. The soldiers were insubordinate and disrespectful towards their superiors, and desertions were common. The Governor applied himself vigorously to the work of correcting these evils, and of mustering the whole defensive force of the colony, regulars and militia. The population was such that the militia could now be raised to 15,000, and Duquesne organized it into companies and had as many as possible thoroughly drilled.

As thus reorganized, the military administrative organization in each district, outside of Quebec, where the colonial administration was located, consisted of a governor, a lieutenant du roi, and a town major, all under salary. In every parish there was a captain of militia (a seigneur or former officer of regulars), responsible for the drill and discipline of his men, while the more influential and experienced seigneurs were sometimes commissioned as field-officers. Retired soldiers settled in the country were used as non-commissioned officers. Special inducements were offered to non-commissioned officers and men of the Colony Troops to settle in Canada on their discharge from the regular service, and such as accepted the terms offered were supplied with arms. From the year 1754 every parish was a garrison, commanded by a captain of


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