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58   MILITARY HISTORY OF CANADA

who thus became the first Governor of the new establishment, which was given the name of Louisbourg.

The entrance from the sea to the harbour of Louisbourg was less than a quarter of a mile wide, while it had a circuit of nearly twelve miles. The anchorage was excellent, it had a depth of about forty feet, and ships could conveniently be beached for repairs. After some years piers, magazines, and fortifications were constructed under the direction of engineers from France, and in course of time Louisbourg became the strongest fortified seaport of America except Quebec. In about twenty years, the French Government is said to have expended 30,000,000 livres in fortifying Louisbourg. The hills, which at a short distance from the shore followed the windings of the coast, were crowned with works of solid masonry, the highest point being selected as the site for the Citadel, or King's Bastion. The works as a whole were built on the Vauban system, and completely encircled the town on the land side, the entrance to the harbour being defended by outlying bastions known as the Dauphin's and Queen's Bastions, and by a battery placed on the shore of the harbour. The complete works had ernbrazures for 148 cannon. An important outpost was a battery of thirty-six guns on the island commanding the narrow entrance to the harbour, while facing the entrance was the Royal Battery with thirty guns.

In 1744, France declared war on England, and the American colonies were speedily involved in the conflict which ensued. Before the English colonists became aware of the precise state of affairs in Europe, a force from Louisbourg surprised and captured a small English outpost on the Strait of Canso. In consequence, the New Englanders immediately took up arms; and, learning that France and England were now at war, made preparations for co-operating in the reduction of Louisbourg. Massachusetts under the leadership of her Governor, William Shirley, took the initiative, though the House of Assembly gave a majority of but one in


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