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24   MILITARY HISTORY OF CANADA

tained continuously until 1651. On April 3rd, 1669, the King of France instructed Courcelles to organize all the male inhabitants of New France into companies, but nothing appears to have been done to carry out this order.

On his arrival Frontenac set to work to organize the in-habitants for defence, practically creating a colonial militia and giving it the form it retained until 1760. According to his plan all the able-bodied men of each parish or cote formed a company of milices, but to be brigaded in time of war only. He next devoted his attention to the construction of a fort at Cataraqui (Kings-ton) on Lake Ontario, at the mouth of the Cataraqui river. But he lacked money, munitions of war, means of transportation, and troops, and was largely dependent upon the goodwill and assistance of the settlers, who were anything but enthusiastic over the project. He issued a peremptory order requiring the inhabitants of Quebec, Three Rivers, Montreal, and the settlements along the Richelieu to furnish him, at their own cost, a certain number of armed men and the requisite number of canoes to convey them and the supplies for the expedition from Montreal to Lake Ontario. In a more conciliatory style he invited the military officers who had settled in the country to join him, and the response was, on the whole, very gratifying. In June, 1673, as he passed up the St. Lawrence from Quebec to Montreal, he landed at the various settlements and seigniories on the way, and most of the seigneurs and their following joined him.

Frontenac remained two weeks in Montreal, where he had a busy time organizing the militia and adjusting disputes which had arisen among the officers regarding questions of rank and precedence. Boats, canoes, artillery, ammunition and all other necessaries were eventually forwarded by water to the site of the new fort during the summer of 1673, and 400 men were sent to build it. A small detachment of soldiers was also sent to guard the workmen at their tasks, and to remain behind as a garrison. So vigorously was the work prosecuted under


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