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COUNT FRONTENAC,1 the most illustrious of the governors of New France, arrived at Quebec in 1672, and at once proceeded to carry out some of the more important projects proposed by Courcelles and Talon. One of his first tasks was to build up a more effectual organization for defence. In spite of the wish of the Home Government to keep the people grouped together in a few settlements, the frontiers had extended, and the problem of providing for the defence of the colony was important. According to the feudal system, introduced into the country with the first organized settlement, every man, with the exception of the clergy, was liable to be called upon for military service and without pay; but the law had not hitherto been rigorously enforced, and the quotas of men raised for service in the Indian wars had been composed of volunteers. By 1648, some of the inhabitants in Acadia and along the St. Lawrence had been organized into militia companies, and in 1649 the first call upon the inhabitants of New France for actual military service appears to have been made, a company of some fifty men being placed under arms to repel an Iroquois attack.

That same year 100 volunteers were called out as a camp volant to patrol the country between Montreal and Three Rivers, and this service appears to have been main-

Louis de Buade, Comte de Palluau et de Frontenac, twice Governor of New France, was born in France in 1620 and entered upon a military career at an early age. He saw service and won renown in Holland under Maurice, Prince of Orange, and also in France, Italy, and Germany. The great Turenne gave him the command of the reinforcements despatched to Candia when that island was attacked by the Turks. He is said to have been a colonel of horse at seventeen and a lieutenant-general after twelve years' service.


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