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PIONEER SOLDIERS OF CANADA   17

trade with the French. He lost no time in taking steps to carry out his instructions. Soon after his arrival several companies of the regiment, accompanied by some volunteers from the inhabitants, were despatched from Quebec to occupy and fortify advantageous positions along the water route leading to the Iroquois country via the Riche-lieu river and Lake Champlain. Other bodies of soldiers and voulnteers were sent forward at intervals during the summer and autumn, by which time the entire Carignan-Salieres Regiment had reached Quebec.

Before November, forts to provide magazines, hospitals, and barracks had been erected at the most important points along the more exposed sections of the proposed route of advance. The first, built at the point where the Richelieu discharges into the St. Lawrence near the head of Lake St. Peter, was in charge of Captain Sorel; the second, placed at the first obstruction to navigation, near the Richelieu rapids, was in charge of Captain Chambly; while the third, called Ste. Therese, some nine miles higher up the stream, near the present town of St. Johns, was constructed and commanded by Colonel de Salieres, the commanding officer of the regiment. These works consisted of squares enclosed within double, loopholed, wooden palisades from twelve to fifteen feet high, the face of each side of the square protected by bastions at each corner affording an enfilading fire. Within the en-closure were sheds and wooden buildings for the magazines, hospitals, and barracks. During 1666, a fourth fort, Ste. Anne, was built on an island in Lake Champlain.

A secure line of communication having thus been established, Daniel de Remy, Sieur de Courcelles, who, in 1665, had succeeded Mezy as Governor, left Quebec, under the direction of Tracy, in January, 1666, at the head of an expedition consisting of 300 of the Carignan-Salieres and 200 volunteers. All wore snowshoes, and each carried from twenty-five to thirty pounds of bread and other necessaries. The first part of their route lay over the ice, and the long march to Fort St. Therese was one of great


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