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guarded by such men as Dollard, they returned disconsolately to their homes, humiliated and crestfallen.

In 1662, the French Government became impressed with the importance of taking vigorous steps to protect its infant colonies along the St. Lawrence, and, in August of that year, the desponding spirits of the colonists were revived by the arrival at Quebec of a company of soldiers from France and an assurance from the King that these troops were but the forerunners of a whole regiment.

March 21st, 1663, is a date to be remembered in the military history of New France, for on that day was issued the edict replacing the government of the Company of One Hundred Associates by Royal Government, in which the authority rested in a "Supreme Council," modelled after the Parliament at Paris, the principal functionaries of which, including the Governor and Royal Intendant, were appointed by the King and were held immediately responsible to him. Up to this time the Governor, al-though in his military capacity a King's officer, had been virtually little more than the head agent of the chartered company for administering its affairs in the colony, and had been hampered by the interference of company officials. Under the new regime, as the direct representative of the sovereign, the Governor had absolute control of the military force, and special charge of the external relations of the colony. The first Royal Governor was Augustin de Saffray, Chevalier de Mezy, who landed in Quebec in September, 1663, bringing with him a number of officers, some soldiers, and several hundred settlers.

When the Marquis de Tracy arrived in Canada in June, 1665, as lieutenant-general of all the American possessions of France, he brought with him a second instalment of the Carignan-Salieres Regiment, four companies having arrived earlier in the season. He was commissioned among other things to exterminate the Iroquois, who persisted in their incursions into Canada, attacking not merely the French traders and the Canadian Indians, but also the natives from remote regions who came to

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