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PIONEER SOLDIERS OF CANADA   9

in winning a complete victory. In the captured vessels there were large supplies of food and ammunition and 150 cannon. After this triumph, the Kirkes returned to England and Champlain was left to endure a year of privation.

The following year the Kirkes once more appeared at Tadoussac with a strong fleet. Lewis was despatched to Quebec with three ships, and Champlain, realizing that resistance was bound to result in failure, surrendered his charge on July 28th, 1629. Next morning the French marched out of the fort, 150 English soldiers took possession, and for three years the English flag was to wave over Quebec. Champlain was taken to England and on his arrival at Plymouth on November 20th learned that his fortress had been seized in time of peace.

In 1632, New France was, by the treaty of St. Germainen-Laye, restored to the French, and in May, 1633, Champlain returned to Quebec as Governor under the One Hundred Associates. His death in 1635 removed one of the most valiant figures which have ever graced the pages of Canadian history. He was succeeded, in June, 1636, by Charles Huault de Montmagny.

After the restoration of the colony to France, the Company of One Hundred Associates showed no disposition to perform its obligations, failing to send out the number of colonists promised or to sustain an adequate military force for defence. Such troops as were sent out were really more traders than soldiers, the Company's main object being the temporary profits of the fur trade. The total white population of New France in 1640 did not exceed 200, including women and children, and the greater number of the inhabitants were agents of the Company and their servants. In that year a number of devotees in Paris formed a society for the promotion of a religious colony on the island of Montreal, and as a result the settlement of Ville Marie, or Montreal, was founded in 1642. The island of Montreal, situated at the junction of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers, was


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