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8   MILITARY HISTORY OF CANADA

Cardinal Richelieu, the great Prime Minister of Louis XIII. But Champlain was continued as resident governor, or factor, under the new company, his commission investing him with authority "to build forts, to appoint officers for the administration of justice, to cause the King's ordinances to be observed, to make war and peace with the savages," etc., and "to exercise all the powers of a viceroy on behalf of His Most Christian Majesty."

The One Hundred Associates covenanted to send 300 tradesmen to New France at once, and to have 4,000 French inhabitants settled there before 1643. In consideration of their engagements, the Company secured a grant of the whole of New France, both Acadia and the St. Lawrence valley, including the forts and settlements. It was to provide for its own defence, the King reserving for himself the nomination of all military officers. But the fortunes of war prevented the Company from getting actual possession of its domain for several years.

Early in 1628, two fleets were sailing for Canada, one from France and the other from England. The first was a fleet of eighteen vessels, mainly transports, the property of the One Hundred Associates; the second consisted of three staunch, heavily-armed craft, commanded by Captain David Kirke and his brothers Lewis and Thomas. The English ships were privateers, owned by the Adventurers of Canada, organized by Sir William Alexander (Earl of Stirling) for the purpose of disputing with the French the possession of North America.

When the Kirkes reached the St. Lawrence, they made their headquarters at Tadoussac, and from this place a letter was sent to Champlain, demanding the surrender of Quebec. Champlain's little garrison was on the verge of starvation, but a defiant answer was returned, and the Kirkes, thinking the fort well defended, postponed its capture for the time being and went in search of the French fleet, which they knew to be coming to Champlain's relief. The enemy ships were encountered near Gaspe Bay, and after a sharp, short fight the Kirkes succeeded


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