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PIONEER SOLDIERS OF CANADA   7

palisades were galleries well defended by timber barricades, and supplied with wooden gutters through which water could be run for the extinguishing of fires. On the galleries were supplies of stones for hurling at an attacking enemy.

The Hurons had based their hopes of success upon surprise. Having failed to rush the fortress, they appear to have lost heart, and Champlain had no easy task to induce them to persevere. Under his guidance was built a wooden tower, sufficiently high to overlook the palisade and large enough to shelter five men. Huge wooden shields were constructed, and protected by these the warriors dragged the tower, in which Champlain and some of his Frenchmen armed with arquebuses had placed themselves, to a position within ten feet of the palisades. It was thus possible to maintain a raking fire along the adjacent galleries of the stockade, and considerable execution was done. The Onondagas, undaunted by the discharge of firearms, defended themselves manfully, yelling defiance and hurling showers of stones and arrows upon the assailants. The Hurons, for the most part, stood at a distance launching harmless flights of arrows. But a particularly bold warrior, with flaming birch bark in hand, rushed to the palisade, followed by others bearing dry faggots, and attempted to set fire to the stockade. This attempt was brave enough, but the wind was unfavourable and the defenders easily extinguished the fire. After this failure, the Hurons lost heart and retired to a safe distance from the Onondaga town. Champlain, although severely wounded, urged a renewal of the at-tack, but the crestfallen Hurons turned a deaf ear to him, and immediately set out for their own country, bearing him back with them.

In 1627, an important change took place in the administration of New France, the trading companies (there had been four since the founding of Quebec) which had previously held the country under charter being replaced by the Company of One Hundred Associates founded by


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