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FUR-FARMING IN CANADA   43

"Quite a few show rickets which is due largely to the kind of food they get. In those ranches where proper care is taken, very few of them have this disease. Where they are bred simply for quality of fur with-out due regard to physique, where they are in-bred, and especially when they are not properly fed, they are liable to develop rickets. Ground bone, lime water or cod liver oil and hypophosphites of lime and soda administered with their food will help to arrest the disease at its beginning. Abundance of fresh air and sunshine should also be provided.

"Foxes in confinement are prone to suffer especially from

Disorders of   disorders of digestion due to lack of knowledge in feed-

Digestion ing them. The following are a number of the more common of the diseases of the digestive organs, together with directions for treating them:

"Diarrhoea.—If severe, give a purge of castor oil with a few drops of spirits of turpentine, followed by 10 to 20 grains of bismuth every two hours till the animal is better. The castor oil dose may be repeated more than once in smaller doses if the diarrhoea persists. At the same time, the food should also receive attention. Meats should be restricted, and milk, biscuits and eggs given. No food should be left in the feeding-pans more than a few hours and the pans should be scalded out frequently.

"Constipation.—They do not suffer much from this disease. It can be overcome largely by means of dieting. A dose of cascara acts well, and, when needed, injections of soap suds may be given.

"Worms.—Pups are especially liable to worms. Indeed, I have seen the whole intestinal tract full of worms. These often cause fits. Fast the pup for eight or ten hours and give a dose of castor oil with a few drops of turpentine. Also give santonine—one-third of a grain to a pup six weeks old. Repeat every other day till the pup is well.

"Indigestion.—In pups this is liable to cause fits. The young ones will not eat; their coats lose sleekness and they become listless. If not promptly treated, they die quickly. Give castor oil and turpentine and feed judiciously. This can only be done by separating the ill from the well.

"I have met with no case of disease of the respiratory organs.

"There have been no epidemics of any kind among the foxes of Prince Edward Island. Now and again, a grown fox has died suddenly. Usually the fox seemed to be quite lively, and in a few hours the keeper found him dead. I performed autopsies on three or four of these and could in no case be certain of the cause of death. In one case, I found some congestion of the lung, which I regarded as post-mortem. In an-


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