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III. Manual of Fur-Farming


THE fox is found on every continent and comprises a number of species. The common red fox, which exists in the greatest numbers, has a range which "extends across Europe and northern and central Asia to Japan, while, to the south, it embraces northern Africa and Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan and the northwestern districts of India and the Himalayas." In North America its range extends south to Virginia and includes all Canada (except some northern regions), and the northeasternmost portion of the United States. Its wide geographical range accounts for many distinct local phases or geographical varieties. These phases, or sub-species, differ from one another in form, in size and, to some extent, in colouring; but the differences are often not apparent to the untrained observer. It is easy to distinguish the four species of foxes commonly seen in America, viz., the common red with its white-tipped tail, the arctic or polar fox with its short ears and blue or white pelt, the kit-fox with its black tail and small size, and the gray fox with its gray and red colour and erectile hairs down the tail; but it is more difficult to distinguish the sub-species of the common red fox. These are classified as follows by Merriam:

COMMON RED Fox (Vulpes) which, in some districts, is found in several colours, viz.:



Red Fox—When red and white with dark points;



Silver Fox—No red, but dark all over with silver amphimaculated hairs intermixed; white on tip of tail;

Cross Fox—An intermediate from, similar to silver fox, but with red sides, neck and ears.

V. fulvus—Ontario, Quebec, Eastern United States.

V. bangsi—Labrador and North shore of Gulf of St. Lawrence.


V. deletrix—Newfoundland.

V. rubricosa—Nova Scotia,New Bruns-wick, Gaspe, Prince Edward Island.*

V. regalis—Manitoba, Dakota, Montana, Alberta.

V. macrouris—Wyoming, Nevada.

V. abietorum—British Columbia, Al-

berta, North West Terri-


V. alascensis—Alaska, Yukon.

V. luzrrimani—Kadiak islands.

V. kenaiensis—Kenai peninsula.

V. cascadensis—Washington, Oregon, California.

V. mecator—California.

* As it has been segregated for ages, the Prince Edward Island fox is, possibly, a distinct variety.

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