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period of years can give no claim to the increased value of the timber, any more than in the case of the lessee of any other kind of property.

Be the pros and cons what they may, the simple fact remains that a continuance of the present methods of handling our mature timber means its exhaustion, and the consequent passing of an important industry in the west. And this on soil of value for nothing else, and in the face of the experience of such regions as the New England and Great Lakes states. Only a nation of fatalists can go on in the old traditional methods till actual depletion of our forest wealth is at hand. The situation must be faced, and knottier problems have been solved on the basis of compromise. The Government is financially interested from the standpoint of future revenue, while the lumberman must be rewarded for his foresight and enterprise by a portion of the increment. The form in which the Crown takes its share is by regulating logging in the interest of the next crop.

What may be done is necessarily a financial compromise between what is best for the forest and the market conditions of the lumbering industry. At the outset no changes are needed in the license conditions. All that is necessary is to take advantage of them. The modern view-point in timberland administration is a working for continuity of crop, and the Dominion timber regulations make ample provision for this, as was shown in the discussion of the license clauses. But the carrying out of cutting regulations requires an adequate trained force in the woods, and not a handful of men with multitudinous office duties as well.

All true forest land, whether reserved or unreserved, whether licensed or unlicensed, must take the same place eventually in Canada's economic development, and so federal stewardship entails management of all on the same basic principle of continuity. In the nature of things such a system of management depends to an unusual degree on the efficiency of the field force, as can be seen to-day in different timberland administrations in America. The whole success of such a policy is bound up in the calibre of the men in the field. They are the fingers of a business organization' to see that the orders from higher up, as expressions of a certain policy, are carried out. Upon their capabilities and sincerity of purpose rests success or failure, and their inability to respond nullifies the wisest plans of the technical staff. On account of this relation, men for such work must be chosen solely on the basis of their qualifications for what they are paid to do. Political interference with a field force not only results in a weak organization, but has a more or less demoralizing effect on the superior staff. The system will not disappear in a day, but the United States timber administration service affords a stimulating example of what is possible.

18-c. c.

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