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270   COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION

its timber, at the same time preventing depreciation of the property, while the lumberman knows exactly what he is buying and tenders accordingly. It may be added that the timber sale policy, as it is known, has been but recently adopted in reserve management.

There is also provision for the sale, without competition, of small quantities of building material to residents of towns and villages for private use, and of cordwood at 25 cents a cord, up to 400 cords.

Disposal   A few old licenses to cut timber within the Dominion

Within   parks are in existence, but little logging is going

Parks   on, and of late the policy has been to do away with lumbering within park boundaries.

At present, permits are granted allowing removal of dead or fallen timber only. Three classes of permits are issued. Residents are allowed, free of dues, for their own use, 15 cords of wood, from an area limited to three acres, to be cut within three months. Also. yearly permits are granted without competition, covering one-quarter square mile, on payment of $6.25, plus dues of 12/ cents a cord on all cordwood over 50 cords; if timber other than cordwood is cut all dues above $6.25 are charged at the rates in the third class of permit. This latter is a yearly permit, granted by public competition, covering up to two square miles, with a rental of $30 per mile, and renewable for five years. The dues are, for mining props, posts and rails, from one-sixteenth to one-quarter cent per lineal foot, and for cordwood twelve and one-half cents per cord; if such dues equal or exceed the rental the excess is applied on account of the dues.

All permit operations are under the control of the superintendent of the park concerned. Precautions must be taken to avoid the destruction of growing timber, and the starting of forest fires. Debris must be disposed of as directed.

SUMMARY

From the foregoing pages we may briefly summarize the essential features. The Dominion government owns as yet the major portion of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the railway belt. A large share of the property is forest, and on land which will always be of use for lumber production only. The management of this should accordingly aim at continuity of crop for revenue purposes. With this in view some changes are desirable in the handling of this resource.

The portions of the Dominion forests which have been dealt with embrace mainly the timber berths and the forest reserves. The former include the bulk of the accessible mature timber (partly within, and partly without the reserves), while the reserves are largely covered


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