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with licenses (see p. 261) ; the enforcement of these regulations is in the hands of the Timber Branch. The Forestry Branch, which has control of the forest reserves, has no administrative connection with the licensed land within reserve boundaries, beyond protecting it from fire. The forest reserve regulations, framed along modern forestry lines, are applicable only to the unlicensed portions of each reserve. It is with these only that we are here dealing.

Free Permits.—These cover 25 cords of dry wood, to any applicant, for his own use; also, to homesteaders, free building material, as in the case of Dominion lands in general use (see p. 267), except that the application for such a permit must be made within five years of the date of homestead entry. This reduces the chance of fraud.

Paid Permits.—These are issued to a variety of users, as follows: To settlers resident within 50 miles of a reserve, for their own improvement uses; to miners and prospectors for development work; for municipal or public works, and for rural schools and churches; for the use of occupants, permittees and lessees of lands within the reserves; for non-commercial irrigation works; for right-of-way construction, and for railway construction. The principle underlying this policy is that the reserves exist for the use of the public in building up the country. The reserve regulations state the maximum quantities obtain-able under permit for each particular class of user; and the minimum rate of dues for each form of wood product practically corresponds with that charged in the case of Dominion lands outside of reserves (see p. 267). All permit operations on reserves are under the control of the forest officers, and among other conditions stumps are limited to 18 inches in height and all debris must be piled for burning. The system of issuance of the permits by another office, however, does not facilitate supervision.

Sales.—The reserve regulations provide for sales of timber by tender up to 5,000,000 feet, under contract approved of by the director of forestry. The removal is limited to five years, thus preventing speculation. The other conditions of the agreement are fixed to suit each case after thorough examination of the tract. These will include specific designation of what trees may be cut, the price to be paid per unit of product, as determined by the ease of logging and market, the scale to be used, the method of brush disposal, and the penalty for cutting unmarked trees. This method of selling timber is a distinct advance on the old license system, with its uniform regulations for all conditions, since its elasticity permits of provisions being inserted in the contract in the interests of the next crop. By this method each sale is a separate contract, the conditions of which may be made to suit the case in hand; in addition, the Government gets full value for

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