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amount of timber involved may be gained from the tables already given on pages 234-235.

A distinction must be noted between the larger operations and those of the settler. The former, on the mile and quarter-mile berths, are concerned with the manufacture of lumber, cordwood, ties and other wood products, for the trade, and are in reality small licenses. The policy behind is the utilization of timber locally. In the case of the settler the permit system has in mind assistance on the prairie, where wood is scarce, a substitution for the woodlot conditions usual on eastern farms.

Wherever possible portable mills should accompany all tie and piling operations, to saw up the tops, which are usually left in the woods. In one case which came under observation, involving 5,000 ties, the lumber so manufactured from the tops amounted to nearly 30 per cent of the total, counting 30 board feet to a tie. This would mean a considerable saving in wood product, and also increase the revenue to the Crown from the operation. The fixed rate of permit dues at $1.50 per thousand feet of lumber, however, is too high to allow manufacture of tree tops, while the ordinary sawlog industry pays 50 cents.

From the standpoint of administration, the troublesome feature about the permit system is the difficulty of control of the cutting, owing to the large number of small operations. The supervision is divided, those on forest reserves being under the Forestry Branch, and those outside the reserves under the Timber Branch. The main considerations requiring attention in connection with cutting under permit are wasteful cutting, piling of slash, and theft. The Forestry Branch, with a large field force of rangers, has a better chance of control of these in its territory than has the Timber Branch, with its small staff of inspectors, and as a matter of fact the latter's attempts to do so are confined to the large operations, and the majority of permit cuttings are without supervision. In the case of the reserves, the system of allowing portable millmen to locate inside, and log sufficient to cover the lumber permits of the settlers of the district, makes control easier by the centralization of the operations. Various abuses of the principle of the permit system, of course, are in existence.

Disposal   It must be clearly understood that not all the reserved

Within   forest land is subject to the regulations relating to

Reserves forest reserves. Within the reserves there are park areas, which are administered by a separate branch, since the management of forest land for park purposes is naturally different than if for timber. Also, as already noted, there are licensed berths, which include the bulk of the accessible mature timber. These latter operations are subject to the regulations which have been given in the section dealing

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