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FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS   267

vision for various classes of permits. A homesteader is allowed one free permit covering allowance of timber for building, fencing and fuel purposes, to the extent of 3,000 lineal feet of logs (roughly 9.000 feet of sawn lumber), 400 roof poles, 500 fence posts, and 2,000 fence rails. In case of loss of buildings by fire he is allowed a second permit. Also if he have no timber supply of his own he is allowed to cut dry, i.e., dead, timber for his own use for fuel and fencing, free of dues. All other permits to cut timber on Dominion lands are subject to payment of dues.

Owners of mills may be granted permits covering up to 640 acres, at $100 per mile, and subject to the same dues as licensees of timber berths. Permits are also given to cut timber as cordwood, fence posts, telegraph poles, ties and mining timbers, covering areas up to 160 acres, upon payment of $25 and specified dues. These dues are: Cord-wood, 25 cents; fence rails and roof poles, 2 cents; fence posts, 1 cent; building logs, % cent to 1% cents per lineal foot; according to species, telegraph poles 5 cents up, ties 3 cents, and sawlogs $1.50 per thousand feet board measure. These mile and quarter-mile permits are intended to cover special circumstances, where timber is specially and locally required, is fire-killed, or exists in isolated blocks. The rental charge is on the basis of being granted without competition (owing to the expense attached), in this differing from a license.

Settlers may also be granted permits to cut the above products for their own use, at the same prices. Operators of coal lands may cut their mining timbers on payment of one-eighth to one-half cent per lineal foot, according to diameter. Provision is also made for permits covering cordwood for sale, up to 100 cords, at 25 cents, or 12% cents if dry; shingle bolts in the railway belt, up to 100 cords, at 50 cents; fire-killed timber in the railway belt; and timber needed for construction of public works. In the Peace River district portable sawmill owners may be granted permits covering up to one square mile and up to 200,000 board feet, subject to dues at 75 cents per thousand feet.

All permits carry an office fee of 25 cents, and are issued at the Crown timber offices. Each permittee is subject to cutting regulations after the same manner as the licensee of a timber berth. There are clauses forbidding waste, and requiring the piling of all debris. Like-wise, one-half the cost of fire-guarding the timber must be paid by the permit holder of the berth.

The permit system is very widely made use of in the middle west. In 1911-12 some 12,000 permits were issued, the bulk of which were probably free of dues. The majority were issued by Edmonton, Dauphin, Moose Jaw, Winnipeg and Prince Albert offices, the railway belt doing a comparatively small permit business. An idea of the large


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