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Permits   Early Regulations.—From the beginning, in the admin-

(Outside   istration of interior Canada, the policy was followed

Reserves) of allowing the homesteader to cut from Dominion lands, free of charge, such building and fencing material as he required for his own use; and in addition, provision was made for the cutting of sawlogs, building logs, cordwood, ties, fence posts and poles, locally, from Dominion lands, on the payment of certain dues. These privileges are known as permits, as distinct from licenses.

In the early 'seventies various regulations were already in force governing permits to cut timber in the different districts.* On account of the lack of uniformity a consolidation of these took place by order in council dated October 10, 1881.

By these new regulations homesteaders were allowed for their own use, free of dues, 1,800 feet of building logs, 400 roof poles, 2,000 fence rails, and 30 cords of dry wood. In addition, provision was made for the issuance of permits, under payment of dues, as follows: Square timber and sawlogs of oak, elm, ash and maple, $3.00 per thou-hand board feet, of poplar $2.00, and of all other species $2.50; cord-wood, 25 cents per cord; fence posts, 8 feet 6 inches long, 1 cent each; poles, 22 feet long, 5 cents each; ties, 8 feet long, 3 cents each; rails, 12 feet long, and stakes, 8 feet long, $2.00 per thousand pieces; shingles, 60 cents per thousand ; and all other products 10 per cent ad valorem. All permits carried an office fee of 50 cents.

These regulations were superseded five years later by another set, which aimed at securing utilization for farm use of the smaller sized timber, and as much of it poplar as possible, instead of spruce and pine. The maximum size of fence rails and posts was stipulated, and the dues on all rails other than poplar were raised to $5 per thousand. New provisions allowed for the sale of building logs of poplar at one-half cent per lineal foot, and logs of other species at one to one and one-half cents. Dues on dry or fallen cordwood were reduced from 25 cents to 10 cents per cord, for own use, and on shingles from 60 cents to 40 cents. A notable feature of these regulations was a new clause to the effect that " the permittee shall cut up the whole of the tree felled, in such a way that there shall be no waste, and, to prevent the spread of prairie or bush fires, the refuse shall be piled together in a heap and not left scattered through the bush."

Since 1886 there have been various amendments of the regulations,
but mostly minor ones relating to quantity of timber and rate of dues.
Present Regulations.—Under the present regulations there is pro-


*See those referring to Manitoba, dated January 13, 1873, and January 17, 1876; to Keewatin, dated June 25, 1875; to Northwest Territories, dated March 20, 1878.

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