centres of spruce production the limit is much higher. In Quebec it is "12 inches measured two feet above the ground," and in New Brunswick " no spruce tree shall be cut which will not make a log at least 16 feet in length and nine inches at the small end."
The remedy for the defects of an arbitrary diameter limit consists in designating the trees to be felled, even if a diameter limit be kept as the general basis of selection. This permits control of cutting so as to provide proper seed trees. Marking in this manner adds to the cost a maximum of five cents per thousand feet marked.
Besides the restriction as regards size of trees that may be cut, the licenses contain a clause " that the licensee shall not have the right to cut any trees that may be designated as required to provide a supply of seed for the reproduction of the forest." This is an extremely important condition to be inserted in a license, as it provides for full control of the operation through the marking system. Obviously the trees must be designated before the sale, otherwise the purchaser is unable to estimate his logging cost and so decide on the bonus he can afford to bid. So far as is known advantage has not been taken of this seed tree provision.
Likewise, there is engagement on the part of the licensee to dispose of the lumbering debris as directed by the department, but it cannot be said that as yet any systematic effort has been made to cope with the slash evil.*
Another clause deals with undue waste. At present, wasteful methods are to be seen only in the case of some small operators and some contract logging. All the large operators realize the loss to themselves and usually have special men attached to the camps to keep waste down to a minimum. Jobbers are usually paid by the thousand feet and are therefore interested in getting out only the large logs of a tree.
Trespass is usually punished by double dues. Where the timber has been removed beyond seizure a maximum fine of three dollars per tree is provided for. The activity of the timber inspectors in this connection is seen in the seizures and fines for 1912, amounting to $31,245. Owing to the numerous sides to some berths the difficulty of controlling trespass is accentuated.
On the whole, the present regulations would provide fairly well for the next crop, if provision were made for taking advantage of them. But this is impossible with the few men engaged in inspection work.
*The Forestry Branch has since made a beginning at brush disposal on permit areas in forest reserves. This, however, does not affect licensed timber berths or lands outside forest reserves.