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ground rent is still five dollars per square mile (640 acres), except for lands situated to the west of Yale, in which case the rent is $32. The dues are practically the same as then, being 50 cents per thousand feet of sawn timber, 1/ and 13/4 cents for railway ties eight and nine feet long respectively, 25 cents per cord of shingle bolts, and five per cent on the sale of all other products. On burnt timber the dues are reduced one-half.

Other important features are:

  1. The disposal of licenses by public auction, with an upset price.

  2. A diameter limit of 10 inches at the stump.

  3. Provision for the leaving of seed trees to provide for reproduction.

  4. Provision for the elimination of waste.

  5. Provision for the disposal of logging debris.

  6. Provision for dealing with trespass.

  7. A clause to the effect that one-half the cost incurred by the Crown for guarding the timber berth from fire shall be defrayed by the licensee.

  8. Explicit understanding that the license is a yearly one, renew-able "subject to the payment of such rental and dues, and to such terms and conditions as are fixed by the regulations in force at the time renewal is made."

Efficiency of   Fiscal Regulations.—It may be pointed out that the

License   ground rent and lumber dues on Dominion licensed

Regulations berths have remained practically stationary for thirty years, despite the rise in lumber values, which has led the provincial governments to materially increase their rates in the case of provincially owned timber. Yet, excepting Manitoba, the average mill sale price of spruce (the species most widely cut on Dominion lands) is on the whole lower in these eastern provinces.*

Besides the yearly ground rent, the licensee pays dues of 50 cents per thousand feet board measure, when the timber is sawn. On refer-ring to the rate on spruce in other parts of Canada, we note that in Ontario the dues are $1, in New Brunswick $1, and in Quebec $1.05; in British Columbia it is 50 cents, but this is influenced by the high ground rent charged.

The licensee also pays one-half the cost of fire-guarding the timber berth, the government paying the other half. From the last annual report of the department we find that the total revenue from this source was $22,856.17. Since there were some 8,065 square miles under license, this averages a charge of about $2.85 per square mile to

*See table 12 in Bulletin 40, Forestry Branch.

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