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inspectors, with offices at Winnipeg, Prince Albert, Calgary and Kam-loops. The inspectors, with one exception, have had a technical training in forestry, and are responsible to the head office at Ottawa for the initiation and supervision of all the work in their respective districts. In short, the inspector is the business manager of the reserves in his care. Each district is subdivided into administrative units, each in charge of a forest supervisor. These units correspond with individual reserves, where size permits ; large reserves, such as the Rocky Mountains reserve, are, however, divided up, and small ones are grouped together under one supervisor. As far as possible, supervisors are chosen who are technically trained men. Assisting the supervisor are one or more forest assistants, graduates of forestry schools. Each reserve is in turn laid off into ranger districts, to which are assigned the necessary number of forest rangers. At the close of the season in 1913 the permanent field force comprised some 4 inspectors, 10 super-visors, 6 forest assistants and 50 rangers.

The Forest Reserves and Parks Act of 1911 made pro-

Parks   vision for the designation of suitable reserved areas Branch

as Dominion parks. Notable among these are Rocky Mountains, Jasper, Buffalo and Waterton Lakes parks in Alberta. and Yoho and Glacier parks in British Columbia. These are administered by a Parks Branch at Ottawa, in charge of a commissioner of Dominion parks. The outside service consists of a chief superintendent, located at Edmonton, and a separate organization of rangers in each park under a superintendent. The work consists of protection of the forests and game, and the carrying out of improvements in keeping with the purposes for which the parks were created.


Early License Regulations

The forest resources of the Dominion lands early attracted the attention of lumbermen. For instance. a sale of timber berths on lake Winnipegosis was held

on November 1, 1879, at which fifteen limits, totaling 605% square miles, were disposed of for a total bonus of $22,665. The sales were subject to the cost of survey, a ground rent of two dollars per square mile per annum, and five per cent royalty on the sales of products of the berths. Slightly later sales carried a rental of five dollars per mile, and the trees under 10 inches were reserved. These earlier disposals of timber berths took the form of leases, made under various conditions. However, the Dominion Lands Act of 1879 provided for the yearly license system, and the regulations of March 8, 1883, would appear to be the first governing the granting of licenses to cut timber on Dominion lands.

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