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240   COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION

Some jack pine is cut, and this is usually thrown in with spruce. A little tamarack is also cut, for stable flooring, inside finish, and door frames, but as a rule the trees are too small to be sawn.

The area under license in 1911-12 was 2,145 square g mhsr   miles, and under permit 310 square miles. The

licensed berths lie, roughly, in two regions. One of these is the territory for the first 75 miles of the Canadian Northern railway west from the Manitoba boundary, extending south of the line some 45 miles and north to the Saskatchewan river. The remaining berths lie largely in a belt of country 50 miles wide, stretching northwest from Prince Albert 100 miles. Very few berths under license are within the forest reserves, these containing little merchant-able timber. The timber is of the northern spruce type already described.

 

 

In the province of Saskatchewan eight reserves, total-Forest   ing 1,800 square miles, have been created. Of these,

Reserves

Duck Mountain No. 2 and Porcupine No. 2 are the portions of the rough, hilly region of western Manitoba lying outside that province; these have been already described. Moose Mountain and Beaver Hills are two small reserves with much slough land, in the south-eastern portion of the province. Both have the usual history, —stripped of timber and overrun by fire, and now carrying a reproduction of poplar, mostly immature. Their value is local, for fuel, fencing material, and such like. Planting will be necessary for con-version to conifers.

Of the remaining reserves, three large ones are situated around Prince Albert. These are the Nisbet, bordering the North Saskatchewan river; the Pines, southwest from the city, between the North and South Saskatchewan rivers; and Fort a La Corne, extending eastward from the junction of the same two branches.

These three reserves are very similar in character of soil and tree growth, and of a type very different from the Manitoba reserves. They are in general sandy tracts, with much swamp and muskeg interspersed. This sand has a very thin layer of humus, only locally exceeding an inch in depth, which would be readily exhausted by two or three crops, and so is unsuitable for farming except under continued fertilizing. Wherever the sod is broken the tendency to become blow sand is very evident.

The characteristic tree is jack pine, here near its centre of optimum development, and reaching good tie size at maturity. It occurs mostly in pure even-aged stands, and many mature blocks of limited area occur, especially on the Fort a La Corne and Nisbet reserves. The


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