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nature, in time, if not interfered with, would re-establish the pine on the cut-over pineries in commercial quantities. If man would do his part and remove the interference (forest fires), all would be well, and the former pine lands would continue to produce pine indefinitely.

Three plans* have been suggested for future action


Plans for Con-

on the cut-over and burned-over lands in the Trent trol of Area

watershed, namely, (1) municipal ownership and management; (2) provincial management, and (3) co-operative management between the Dominion and the Provincial governments, the latter because of the interest which the Dominion has in the protection of the watersheds of the Trent canal. Of these three plans the first seems the most logical and desirable to the writer, if it could be inaugurated.'

One of the chief arguments in favour of county ownership is the stimulation of local interest that would be created. Fire protection would be more effective under local management, for the in-habitants of the community would realize that they, and not some absentee landlord, would reap its benefits. On the other hand, one of the chief arguments against county ownership is that the financial backing of the enterprise would not be so strong as in the case of provincial or federal management, although the initial outlay of money need not be large, as has been shown on pp. 203-204. Moreover, most of the initial outlay, and, to some degree at least, the annual cost of protection, could be offset by the sales of merchantable material already on the area, such as is contained in the patches of hardwoods, scattered groups of pine, the elm in the swamps, and there are many places along the margins of swamps and in the gullies where 100 cords of poplar could be cut on a relatively small area. These operations would involve the establishment of a local sawmill, with its employment of local labour. Again, a local interest in the protection of the area from fire would be stimulated. At the end of 15 years the cutting of poplar on a fairly large scale could be begun and at the end of 30 years, according to the calculations on p. 200 some 328,000 cords of poplar could be harvested. By this time also, considerable young pine would have attained commercial size.

*Trent Watershed Survey. Commission of Conservation, Canada, Ottawa, 1913. Pp. 15-20.

tit should be mentioned in this connection that Hastings county has already initiated a policy, through the Counties Reforestation Act, of acquiring cut-over and burned-over lands and holding them for their future timber yields. The councillors of Peterborough county, in which the area under discussion is situated, have a similar project under consideration.

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