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enforcing the provision. The additional cost amounts to approximately 25c. per M. feet, but there are certain offsets; for example, they are securing material which in some cases before was wasted, and some operators claim that it reduces the cost of skidding. I do not think that top-lopping seriously interferes with reproduction, and the experience has been that the fire danger is, perhaps, increased the first year or two; but, on the other hand, should a fire start, they are able to build a fire line quicker and easier, and that, on the whole, there is not any material disadvantage, even during the first year or two.

" The tendency in softwood operations is, so far as possible, to get away from river-driving and to adopt shipping by rail instead. This has led to bark peeling, and there are large areas in the Adirondacks where spruce is now being peeled in the woods. I think that this is a very serious situation, as the bark does not decay for years, and should a fire occur it would afford excellent fuel. The law charges us with protection of various areas from fire and, of course, we cannot accomplish what the law or people expect unless certain precautions are taken."



By Ralph Hopping

There is one protection factor in slash disposal that Mr. Koch, in his article, "The Economic Aspect of Slash Disposal," in the July, 1914, number of the Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters. fails to consider. This is the danger of an insect infestation resulting from the breeding of large numbers of destructive bark borers in the unburned refuse from timber sales, such as cull logs, tops, and limbs.

That the danger from slash left on the ground should be considered from all sides of the question is obvious, and that the danger from insects is not negligible is recognized by foresters the world over. While in France, Austria, and Germany the very small limbs may not always be piled and burned, the utilization of all tops and limbs is so thorough as to practically eliminate this danger. The very small branches and twigs do not breed any very dangerous species. In America, however, the absence of settlers and distance from market precludes this thorough utilization. Logs are seldom used under ten feet in length and limbs not at all, except in cases where they are used for fuel in logging engines, or in the rare instances where cordwood sales are possible.

* Reprinted from Proceedings of the Society of American Forestevs, Vol. N. No. 2, pp. 183-185.

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