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" If you have a bunch of scattered pine timber situated in a growth of poplar and aspen, where the felling of a pine will bring down a dozen or so aspen with it, and where it is necessary to cut a skid road through birch and aspen to get to the tree, the cost of piling and burning will come close to seventy-five cents. This is assuming that you would do as we do here, make them burn all of the brush cut out of the skid roads and all of the aspen knocked clown by the pine. We have had instances where there was more brush to be burned on the skid road and more knocked down aspen and birch than there was to be burned on the pine tree they were after. This is the other extreme.

"We figure an average of from eighteen to twenty-five cents for piling and burning. If piled and burned later, it will cost from twenty to forty cents for piling and from five to ten cents for burning, but this is the most costly method and not used here at all. Assuming that you intend to have the brush piled, it is just as easy to take ten minutes in the morning and start a small fire of dry wood and pile the brush on. After the fire is once started, you need do no more than pile, except that, instead of piling it on bare ground or snow, you pile it on the fire and, in this way, brush that would make two or three piles is burned in one fire, and time is saved in carrying the brush. After the first one is made, other fires may be started easily by using a square-nosed, long-handled shovel and carrying some coals to the point where the next fire is to be started. It is very difficult to make a pile of brush that will burn clean without repiling but by burning as you pile, everything is cleaned up.

" Another thing to be taken into consideration is that, if you are working in a country where there is considerable reproduction, the number of ash piles will be greatly reduced, in fact, from figures we have made here, the area burned over will be only about one-fourth of what it would be if piled and burned later. If brush cannot be piled and burned as soon as it is made, I would just as soon not require piling for, if piled in the winter, the snow drifts in and the pile will be the last thing to dry out in the spring. If left unpiled, just as soon as the spring thaw comes, a crew can go in and pile and burn it at one operation before there is any danger of fire spreading.

" While in District No. 1, figures were taken from this forest on brush burning to be used in the west, and I found that at the various supervisors' meetings which I attended, a great deal of the opposition to brush burning was from the supervisors themselves. I will admit that to get general brush burning under way was some job, but now that we have been burning for nine years, the lumbermen think nothing of it and it is considered as much a part of a logging operation as the cutting of the logs themselves. Employment offices around here advertise for brush burners iust the same as they do for swampers and sawyers. We were told when we first attempted brush burning that it would cost $2.00 per thousand. Others said that green brush could not be burned in the winter at all. To date, we have cut about six hundred million and the brush has all been burned. This-.

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