very few of the sub-contractors were making even wages, and, in many cases, were losing money; so that, rather than see the burden fall on the working man, leniency was shown in every case, thus leaving it hard to judge of the beneficial results of the regulations had they been carried out as originally intended.
In every case the contractor made the mistake of letting the piling lag behind his other work until a heavy snowfall made it impossible to do anything further with it until spring. He then experienced trouble in getting men to do the work, as the average " tie hack " considered it beneath his dignity to handle brush. These difficulties will be overcome, however, when the contract price given to men working by the piece includes the piling of the brush; they will then do it the cheapest way, which, it is agreed, is at the time of cutting. The con-tractors all agree that the additional price to be allowed should be between three and four cents per tie, or between fifty and seventy cents per thousand feet for saw-timber, depending on the size of the average tree in the stand. The rate per thousand feet for saw-timber would be below this where the operation is in a stand of large timber, since practically the same amount of brush has to be handled for a tree cutting out 600 feet as for one cutting 1,000 feet.
The work done during the first winter's operations showed that, where there is a lot of debris already on the ground, due to natural causes, the labour and expense of piling only the brush that results from logging operations is almost wholly lost. In many stands of spruce and cedar, an operator may faithfully pile all the debris caused by his operations, and yet the effect of this work may be lost entirely, owing to the large amount of debris previously on the ground, for which he is not responsible, and which he cannot reasonably be required to pile and burn. In the case of a jack pine stand, where the ground is absolutely clean, piling the brush will go a long way towards absolute fire protection and is a cheap form of insurance.
A case in point is a " tote " road cut south from Henningville by Palmer Bros. & Henning, largely through a jack pine stand. The brush from this cutting has been piled by these contractors in such a way that it creates absolutely no fire hazard. I believe these people can claim to have made the most satisfactory job of brush piling that has to date been done in the Dominion. In this last instance, the cost, as nearly as I can ascertain, was about $50 per mile.
After noting the effect of a regulation requiring that only the brush caused by the logging operations be piled over the whole area. I decided it would be of more practical value to limit the piling to a 300-feet strip around the outside. but to require that all debris, whether •due to natural causes or to the contractors' operations, be piled in the