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On another area of about 500 acres, on an easterly slope, the brush was piled but not burned. Here the stand was of dense young Douglas fir, running 150 to 200 trees to the acre, ranging from six to twelve inches in diameter. The soil was gravelly clay, and the cover mostly grass, with little underbrush. Logging operations were carried on during the winter of 1912 and 1913 for ties, 43,564 ties and 27,000 feet of saw-timber being cut.

The brush was piled the following October, having been on the ground during the summer, so that, in many cases, it became matted down with a rank growth of weeds and grass.

The trees had been felled with the tops more or less in clusters. The limbs were lopped off up to a diameter of about four inches, where the top was again cut off and all loose limbs piled on top as compactly as possible.

The company kept no special cost account for the operation, but gave $700.00 as the probable total figure, or fifty cents per thousand feet. The cost was high because the brush had lain all summer and had become embedded in weeds and grass, and also because the labourers used were not accustomed to the work and consequently were not as efficient as if they had been employed at this class of work before.

While the piling without burning did not eliminate the fire hazard altogether, it greatly reduced it by making it much easier to control a fire should one occur accidentally.


By C. MacFayden, District Forester, British Columbia Forest Branch

In connection with the construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific and Canadian Northern Pacific railways, the British Columbia government granted free permits for timber for ties and other purposes incident to railway construction. It was at first a condition in each of these timber permits that all the debris caused by logging operations should be piled in such a way that it could be burned without danger to the remaining timber. This was a complete innovation to the contractors who had always previously left their slash as they wished, and the requirement was consequently hard to enforce. At the outset, all con-tracts contained only the blanket cause, " Subject to the regulations of the Forest Branch." This was looked upon by the sub-contractors as a mere matter of form and not to be taken into consideration in arriving at prices, so that, later, when these regulations were enforced, they, without exception, claimed they could not possibly fulfil them at the prices they were getting from the company or the contractor above them, as the case happened to be. During the first winter's operation,

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