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FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL   125

periods, as it was possible to get past the small fires. On the grade, no work was interfered with in any way.

On the tie permit area, close to the grade, fir trees had been felled and ties hewn in considerable confusion on the snow. The slashings here presented a more difficult proposition, as only the smaller fir had been taken, leaving the larger trees standing. Thick masses of tops, limbs, butt logs and chips were left on ten to thirty acre patches throughout the area. The slash was piled in larger piles, as far as possible out of range of the standing timber, so as not to injure it. All tops were lopped, and the limbs and debris piled. Butt logs and large tops were not burned, as the disposal of only the highly inflammable material was considered necessary. These piles were made six to eight feet high, and ten to twelve feet in diameter. Two men tended from eight to ten piles, gathering and throwing the slash continuously on the burning piles. The force of ten men averaged about fifteen acres per day in this way. A little over twelve days was required to clean up the whole area.

The total cost of cleaning up the slashings along twenty-seven miles of roads and fifteen miles of right-of-way across the Hydraulic summit was approximately $1,200. On the 400 acres of logged-over tie permit, the cost of burning slash was $520.00; worked out on 2 mileage basis, the above shows: Roads, $25.00 per mile; right-of-way, $35.00 per mile; tie slashings, $1.25 per acre, or 2.7 cents per tie for 18,000 ties.

The above figures are approximately correct, and might be considered a basis for other work of a similar nature. In this instance. where there was no room for doubt as to the necessity of the under-taking, it was shown that such work can be handled at a cost which Is in fair proportion to the benefits derived in the form of reduced fire hazard.

KAMLOOPS DISTRICT

By P. G. Caz crhill, District Forester, British Columbia Forest Branch

Broadcast burning was tried on an area of slash, comprising 350 acres, situated on a gentle southern slope on the North Thompson river. The slash extended along the slope for three and one-half miles, and was from 650 to 1,000 feet wide. The stand was open fir, with little or no underbrush. The soil cover was mostly grass, with a very thin coat of humus, and the soil was gravelly. The stand would aver-age 3,500 feet board measure per acre, the trees being ten to fourteen inches in diameter and sixty to seventy feet high. Patches of volunteer fir reproduction were common among the older trees. Logging opera-


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