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106   COMMISSION OF' CONSERVATION

a heavy accumulation of dead vegetable material, and, to insure prompt re-stocking of the most suitable species and to promote the rate of growth, the slash resulting from logging and the dead vegetable material must first be removed.

Interior   Paralleling the Coast range, at a distance of about

Wet Belt   a hundred miles, and separated from it by a broken or

Region rolling plateau averaging 3,000 to 4,000 feet in altitude, though intersected by several deep valleys, the Gold and Cariboo mountain ranges rise to a height of 5,000 to 8,000 feet, and maintain this altitude for a length of 350 miles north of the International boundary. The Gold range is paralleled again for a length of 250 miles—at a distance of 80 miles further east—by the Selkirk range, the deep valley of the Columbia lying between the two ranges. Northward of the termination of the Selkirk range, the Rocky mountains continue in the same direction as the Gold and Cariboo ranges for a distance of 200 miles, and separated from them by the deep valleys of the Canoe and Fraser rivers. This region of parallel mountain ranges and their many peaks, all separated by deep valleys, is characterized by a climate which par-takes somewhat of the nature of those of both the coast and dry belts.

The annual precipitation amounts to between 30 and 40 inches, the average annual temperature is in the neighbourhood of 40 degrees, with warm summers, and winters which, though cold, are free from long periods of extreme low temperatures. The growing season is long, considering the latitude and altitude, with a comparatively humid atmosphere. The heavy snowfall insures plenty of moisture in the beginning of the growing season and, generally, there is sufficient rain-fall in July and August to maintain most favourable growing conditions throughout the summer. Locally, this region is known as the second, or interior, wet belt, and the term has been applied to the very distinctive forest which the favourable climatic and soil conditions produce.

While many sub-forest types are found in the region, the forest generally is characterized by great density, rapid growth, a large yield and excellent individual tree development, although, of course, it does not equal that found in the Douglas fir coast region.

Cedar, hemlock, Douglas fir, lodgepole pine and spruce are found over nearly the whole region, while western white pine is a constitutent of the stand on the Columbia and North Thompson watersheds. Larch is found on the slopes surrounding the Arrow and Kootenay lakes, and yellow pine in a narrow fringe along the Columbia, Pend d'Oreille and Kootenay rivers, Lower Arrow lake and the south arm of Kootenay lake. Northward, on the Clearwater river, on Quesnel lake and along the main stream of the Fraser river, hemlock, cedar and Douglas


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