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92   COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION

lutely no connection with the administration of cutting regulations on the licensed timber berths, although many of these berths are included within the boundaries of the reserves. This is because the timber berths are not legally a portion of the forest reserves. At the same time, the Timber and Grazing Branch, which is charged with the administration of the timber berths, has not, so far as known, even one man in its employ who has had any training in forestry whatever.

As stated last year, the principal technical features of present-day forestry practice are such control of the methods of cutting as shall ensure the perpetuation of the forest, and such measures of brush disposal, as a fire-preventive measure, as may be found practicable and desirable under the conditions of each individual case. The licensed timber berths naturally include the bulk of merchantable accessible timber on Crown lands, and it is obviously illogical and thoroughly undesirable in every way to permit the cutting of this timber without the most careful and intelligent enforcement of the existing regulations, which have for their object the perpetuation of the forest, by wise use. Such enforcement is, however, not now provided, and is impossible under existing conditions of organization.

FOREST RESERVES IN ONTARIO

The present area of forest reserves and parks in Ontario is 22,574 square miles, or 14,447,360 acres. This area, while large in itself, is not great in comparison with the 108,089,362 acres of provincial and township forest reserves and parks in Quebec; nor is it large in pro-portion to the total area of non-agricultural lands in Ontario which must always be chiefly valuable for the production of timber. There are many millions of acres of cut-over or burned-over forest lands in this province, belonging to the Crown, which are now practically with-out fire protection, but which contain a great deal of young growth and much timber at present below merchantable size. This timber, if protected from fire, would, however, ultimately become merchant-able.

The present annual revenue from woods and forests in Ontario is in the neighbourhood of $2.000.000. It is obvious that, if this revenue is to be maintained, new areas must be continually opened up for lumbering, and this, in turn, necessitates the protection of the non-merchantable areas and the young growth, in order that, when the time comes, they may contain merchantable timber ready for cutting. Any other policy means the sacrifice of a large future revenue to avoid much smaller present expenditures. Since the expense of protecting the large areas of young growth during the necessary period of many


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