WHITE CLOVER. 107
those in which it may have escaped from cultivation; and the fact that all undoubtedly native species of Trifolium are found only in British Columbia and that these form a group widely different from the European ones indicates that White Clover is not indigenous to this country but was introduced by the early settlers.
History: White Clover was first cultivated in Holland—hence the name Dutch Clover. It is at present grown in all European countries and practically all over North America.
Cultural conditions: It occurs naturally in meadows and pastures, along roads and rivers, in valleys and on mountains. It will grow on a great variety of soils, from sand and gravel to rich loam and clay. It does best on moist, well-drained loams which contain lime and humus. It will not succeed if the soil is too stiff or wet.
Climate: White Clover is especially adapted to a rather moist and medium warm climate. When other conditions are favourable, it will endure severe cold without injury. It is also able to stand a long spell of drought, provided the subsoil retains some moisture. It is true that most of the roots are rather superficial and that the growth is therefore affected by dry weather; but the main taproot penetrates to a considerable depth, and the plants will survive with sufficient moisture in the subsoil. In Canada White Clover succeeds best in the Maritime Provinces, in the Great Lakes region and on the Pacific slope. It is not well adapted to the Prairie Provinces.
Habits of growth: When once established, it covers the ground rapidly. The creeping stems branch freely, develop numerous roots and readily form large patches. The heads produce many seeds which fall to the ground and keep their vitality a long time. A few seeds dropped on the ground are thus able within a few years to make surprisingly large patches. This easy propagation accounts for much White Clover in places where it has not been planted and explains why it has been considered indigenous to Canada.
Development is slow in dry weather but growth starts quickly when rain falls. If germinating early in spring, the plants generally blossom in the fall of the same year. The second and following years they produce an abundance of heads, which, if the plants are kept back by grazing, continue to appear during practically the entire season.
Agricultural value: On account of its low growth, White Clover cannot be used to any extent as a hay plant. Its chief value