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hairs. This hairiness makes the American type somewhat inferior for hay, as it is apt to be dusty. Within either type numerous varieties can be recognized, differing in such practical qualities as yielding power, hardiness, maturity, stooling after cutting and duration. Most varieties are merely geographical ones. Such names as Chilean, English, Swedish, French, South or North Russian Clover do not mean that the varieties are botanically distinct, but simply that the seed is of a certain origin and that the plants are adapted to the countries for which they are named.



Mammoth Clover, called Cow Grass in England, is one of the best known varieties. It has sometimes been called Trifolium medium L., but this is not correct, Trifolium medium L. being a distinct species, clearly distinguished from Red Clover in many essentials (see page 98). As indicated by its name, Mammoth Clover is a large variety of Red. It is more decidedly perennial and has there-fore been called Trifolium pratense var. perenne, or Peiennial Red Clover. The stems are long, coarse and generally spreading. The leaves usually lack the white blotch characteristic of common Red Clover. This cannot, however, be used as a distinguishing mark, as the common Red is often without the spot. Mammoth Clover is decidedly later; it blooms from ten days to three weeks after common Red Clover. It grows slowly after mowing and can generally be cut only once in a season. It requires the same soil and climate as Common Red, but on account of its stronger root system and perennial tendency it is more apt to thrive under adverse conditions. Its coarser growth makes the hay less relished by stcck; on the other hand, its greater luxuriance makes it a better soil improver.


It is not possible to separate seed of Mammoth Red Clover from that of Common Red.

A modern improvement in this country is the laying their lands down with clover and trefoile for two years, and keeping it fed well down with sheep, by which means many pernicious weeds which used to trouble them greatly are got under, and their lands kept clean and in good order.—Arthur Young, A Six Months Tour Through the North of England, 1;6.9.

Store of Bees in a dry and warm Bee-house, comely made of Firboards, to sing, and sit, and feede upon your flowers and sprouts, make a pleasant noyse and sight. For cleanly and innocent Bees, of all other things, love and become, and thrive in an Orchard. If they thrive (as they must needs if your Gardiner be skillfull, and love them: for they love their friends, and hate none but their Enemies) they will besides the pleasure, yeeld great profit, to pay him his wages. Yea, the increase of twenty Stocks, or Stooles with other fees, will keep your Orchard. You need not doubt their stings, for they hurt not, whom they know, and they know their keeper and acquaintance. If you like not to come amongst them, you neede not doubt them: for but neere their store, and in their owne defence, they will not fight, and in that case onely (and who can blame them' they are manly and fight desperately.—William Lawson, A New Orchard and Garden, 1618.


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