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its own colour. Although the darker seeds are more popular, the colour should not be taken as an index of value as the most desirable plant types may have pale yellow seeds.

Good Red Clover seed should have a shiny lustre and contain only a small proportion of undeveloped, shrunken seeds. The legal weight is sixty pounds per bushel.

Impurities: Red Clover seed too often contains noxious weed seeds. Among the most troublesome are Ragweed, Night-flowering Catchfly, Bladder Campion, Canada Thistle, Curled Dock and Ribgrass. Other less harmful seeds are Green Foxtail, Lamb's Quarters, Lady's Thumb, Pale Plantain, Yellow Foxtail, Sheep Sorrel and Smartweed.


Diseases: Red Clover has many enemies. Insects are trouble-some and often do considerable damage. Weevils and other insects feed on the leaves and the clover root borer attacks the roots. The latter, which fortunately does not seem to be prevalent in Canada, eats out the central parts of the roots and is a serious pest where it is abundant. The clover midge, which feeds on the young seeds, frequently causes serious loss. Where it threatens to be troublesome the clover should be pastured or cut early.

Various kinds of dodder live on Red Clover. The kind found in commercial seed is chiefly determined by the place of the seed production. It is most frequently introduced into Canada with Chilean Red Clover seed. This dodder (the Latin name of which is Cuscuta racemosa Mart. var. chiliana Engeim.) is quite different from Alfalfa dodder (see page 120). It is true that the dodders resemble each other, but their effects on the plants are quite different. Although introduced several times and widely distributed in the seed producing districts of Ontario, the Chilean dodder seems unable to establish itself and is practically harmless. Other species of dodder may be introduced, however, and prove troublesome with Red Clover.


Red Clover consists of thousands of types, differing in botanical characteristics, biological behaviour and practical value. From a botanical standpoint, two main types can be distinguished which might be termed the American and the European. The latter has smooth stems whereas the stems of the former have stiff, outstanding

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