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Throughout this period Canada has spent Railways. enormous sums in building railways. At Confederation there were, it will be remembered, about 2,300 miles of railway lines in working order; in 1916 there were considerably over 37,000 miles in use. Canada has now three great transcontinental railways, which have opened vast tracts of country to settlement.

Of the railways in the Dominion, more than 14,000 miles, or over one-third, are Government railways. The " Canadian National Railways " system comprises the Intercolonial and Transcontinental Railways (from the first under Government management) and the former Canadian Northern Railway, which was taken over by the Government in 1918. These roads serve every province of the Dominion. In addition to the steam railways, Canada had, in 1916, nearly 1,700 miles of electric railways chiefly in the cities.

Motor   `Within the last twenty years a new kind

vehicles. of carriage, the automobile, has come so rapidly- into use that it is now a most important means of transportation. In 1914 nearly 70,000 motor vehicles were registered in Canada, and in 1916 the number had risen to almost 123,500

The immense development of the air Aeroplanes. service during the war gives promise of the early use of aeroplanes and airships for the purposes of peace and commerce. It is believed, for instance, that aeroplanes may prove of great service in the protection of our forests against fire. The possibilities of various types of air-craft are now being tested in a variety of ways.)q

Hawker and Since these pages went to press, the famous Grieve. Australian aviator, Henry G. Hawker, and his navigator, Lieut.-Commander Mackenzie Grieve, have made their daring attempt to fly across the Atlantic

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