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SOCIAL CONDITIONS.   381

former years the settlers tried to destroy the trees and clear the land as quickly as possible, but at last people are beginning to realize the value of the forests. The governments of the Dominion and of most of the provinces receive large sums of money every year from the sale of timber, and of late years lands have been set apart from time to time in different districts to be kept permanently as forest reserves for the growing of trees. The province of Quebec alone has more than fourteen times the amount of reserved forest land held by the whole Dominion in i9oi. Recently many laws have been made to prevent the destruction of the woods by careless lumbering and forest fires ; and the Dominion Government has given millions of young trees to be planted by the settlers on the treeless plains of the North-«rest.

The Pulp   Since 1867, a new use, so far as Canada

Industry. is concerned, has been found for spruce, and other kinds of wood. Nowadays great forests are cut down every year to be made into paper. In 1916, forty-nine firms manufactured pulp at their mills, using more than one and three-quarter millions of cords of wood, valued at over $13,000,000.

The   The fisheries of Canada give employment

Fisheries, to an army of men, for besides the rivers and great lakes of our country, the Dominion has nearly 13,000 miles of sea-coast. Salmon, halibut, cod, lobster, herring, and other fish are caught in Canadian waters in immense numbers. In 1918 more than 321/2 million dollars' worth of fish was exported; and, owing to the need for saving meat to send overseas, there was an extraordinary development in the use of fish at home. In fact, it is estimated that the value of the fish taken in 1918 was nearly double that of the catch of 19141


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