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SOCIAL CONDITIONS.   379

lighting and cleaning the house, and even milking the cows. Immense numbers of small engines and "tractors," which take the place of horses in ploughing, harvesting, and other farm operations, are now used, especially in the West.

Experimental To improve methods of farming, five Ex-Farms. perimental Farms were established by the Dominion Government in 1886, for trying new kinds of seed, and finding out the best plans for draining and working the soil, feeding and caring for animals, raising

poultry, making butter, cheese, and so forth. The sixth hxperimental Farm (or Station) was not established till twenty years later, but now there are twenty-one of these farms and seven small sub-stations at places in British Columbia, Alberta, and the North-West Territories.

Agricultural In addition, agricultural colleges in the Colleges. different provinces do the double work of carrying on experiments and training students in the science and practice of agriculture. These colleges are generally connected with the provincial universities.

The Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph opened in 1874, with 28 students. In 1914-15, 1,184 students were on the roll.

Cold   For years before the war there was great

Storage. demand in the British market for good butter and cheese,, so, in 1907, the Canadian Government arranged to have certain warehouses, railway cars, and compartments in the steamships kept ice-cold for storing and carrying these and other perishable articles. The result has been a very largely increased sale in Great Britain of Canadian farm and dairy produce. The cold-storage plants, which are now very numerous, are useful also for the preservation of meat, poultry, fish, and fruit.


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