SOCIAL CONDITIONS. 375
heavy duties on many manufactured goods, so as to give an advantage to Canadian manufacturers. The bringing in of this "National Policy" was followed by a rapid increase in the number of factories and in the variety of goods manufactured in the Dominion.
Some In 1867 there were only four or five cotton
Contrasts. mills, which imported 1,3oo bales of cotton. In 1917 there were 29 cotton mills, which (in the previous year) had imported 208,000 bales of cotton. In 1867 Canada had four blast furnaces, where about 5,000 tons of pig iron were made in the year. In I917 there were seven blast furnaces in Nova Scotia and eleven in Ontario, which made 4,600 tons of pig iron in a day, or nearly as much as had been made in the whole Confederation year.
Until fifteen years ago all the rails used in making the railroads of Canada were brought from Great Britain or the United States, but since 1904 Canadian mills have made rails enough for the use of the country, and in some years have also had a quantity to export.
At Confederation, very little of the wheat sent out of the country had been manufactured into flour. In 1915 there were 600 flour-mills in Canada which, together, could turn out 112,000 barrels of flour in a single day. In that year nearly five million barrels of flour were sent to other countries. In 1918 when special effort had been made to save flour to send overseas, the amount exported was nearly ten million barrels..
A Variety of Some very importAnt manufactures besides
Manufac- those already mentioned are furniture and
tures. other articles made of wood; boots and shoes, and other leather goods; clothing, cloths and knitted goods; butter, cheese, sugar and preserved fruits; and a great variety of things made of iron, steel and other