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366   CANADIAN HISTORY VOR BOYS AND GIRLS.

and their cargoes at sea. The other was that many men were taken from their ordinary work to fight or to make guns and munitions and all kinds of things specially for use in Nvar. This was the same in all the belligerent (or fighting) countries, but those in which the armies were actually fighting were worst off; and if Canada was going to help to win the war, it soon became clear that she must save for the other lands as well as for herself.

Canada used to borrow great sums from Money. Britain, but soon Britain found it hard to get money enough to maintain her own armies and fleets, and to lend (as she had to do) to her Allies, who had never been so rich as herself. So the Canadian Government, besides putting additional taxes on the people, urged them to save money to lend for war expenses. They did begin to save; and during the war they have lent to the Government 1436,000,000 dollars.

Lending was not enough. In hundreds of War Gifts. ways war was robbing people in the different countries of their homes, their possessions and their ordinary means of living. People had to give as well as to lend. It is estimated that during the war Canadians gave about 95,000,000 dollars for patriotic purposes, including Patriotic, Red Cross, Soldiers' Comforts, Hospital and other funds, and for the relief of distress in France, Belgium, Serbia and other invaded lands.

The Food   As the war went on Germany threatened to

Controller. starve Great Britain by sinking ships laden with food for her. The British people answered by growing all the food they could and eating very much less than was pleasant. Canada, like the United States, had her answer also. She undertook to send more food overseas, and in June, 1917, appointed a Food Controller. Amongst other measures, this official limited the amount


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