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hammered the German front line trenches "into pulp"; lifted to a hundred yards further on; continued its work of destruction- there for another six minutes; lifted again, and so on. Close behind this barrage followed the infantry with machine guns, bombs and bayonets. The Germans fought desperately, day and night. There were many counter-attacks. Positions won were often lost again, and there was terrible hand-to-hand fighting with small parties of the enemy hidden in cellars and ruined houses, which called for much "individual dash and initiative." The Canadians took all their objectives.

Passchen- Incessant rain and seas of mud made the daele Ridge. Third Battle of Ypres, during which the Canadians took Passchendaele Ridge, a terrible test of courage and endurance, and again showed themselves worthy brothers-in-arms of the men of Britain's equally gallant old and new armies. On October 26th the Canadians won Bellevue Spur and a little hill south of Passchendaele. Four days later they made other gains, holding them against desperate counter-attacks, and at last, on November 6th, after some days of dry weather, they carried the whole of the long-fought-for Ridge. Thus as John Buchan says, in " Nelson's History of the War," " it fell to Canada by this crowning victory at Passchendaele to avenge the gas attack of April, 1915, when only her dauntless two brigades stood between Ypres and the enemy."



During the winter of 1917-18 the Germans

The last

great Ger-   were able to strengthen their Western man offensive armies with troops from the Russian

in 1918. front and with prisoners released by the Russians. On March 21st they began a violent offensive at the point where the British and French armies joined. The British were forced back towards Arras and (some

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