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On both sides there was much use of air-craft for observing the movements of the enemy and directing the fire of the great guns. But gradually the Allies established a marked superiority in the air, and towards the end managed largely to " blind " the German artillery by destroying the German airplanes, or driving them down behind their own lines.

Canadian   The Canadians early- showed a special apti-

Air Men. tude for aerial warfare. More than one-fourth of the pilots and observers of the British Royal Air force (fighting on the several battle fronts) hailed from Canada. Amongst the most famous of these daring and skilful flyers may be mentioned the names of Lieu-tenant Alan McLeod, Colonel Barker, and Colonel Bishop —all of whom have been decorated with the Victoria Cross.

Some Events In this rear, 1917, the Allies suffered a of 1917. most unfortunate set-back. A revolution in Russia (which country had done wonders at the beginning of the war) gradually destroyed her military effectiveness, and set free many German divisions to strengthen the enemy forces on the Western front. This, too, was a year of ups and downs in the Italian campaign. On the other hand, Germany, by persistent provocation of and insult to the United States, brought that wealthy and powerful nation into the ranks of her enemies in April, igi7. In February, General :Maude recaptured Kut, and a few weeks later enterdBagdad in triumph. At the end of the year, General Allenbv's army in Pales-tine succeeded where centuries earlier the Crusaders had failed. It wrested Jerusalem from the Turks, and in the following year freed the whole of Palestine—soon again, it is hoped, to be the national home of the Jewish people,

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