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THE GREAT WAR.   357

stroyers and 6,617 men. The Germans did not admit the loss of nearly so many ships and men, but never afterwards dared to come out to meet the British in open fight A

The U Boats. As a matter of fact the Germans put

much more faith in their submarines than their battleships. With these they hoped to weaken the British navy very greatly, but did not succeed in sinking many ships of war. They did, however, sink an enormous number of merchant and passenger ships belonging to the Allies and neutral countries, causing the death of thousands of sailors and non-combatants, and the loss of vast quantities of food and other goods. As time went on they grew more and more cruel and reckless, sinking hospital ships, merchant vessels and fishing-boats without warning, and by 1917 these losses caused a great deal of anxiety. But so far from being terrified into submission, as the Germans hoped, the Allies only worked the harder to build new ships, saved their food and every kind of necessary with greater care, and in-vented new ways of catching and destroying submarines. It was just the same with other kinds of German " frightfulness "—the name they gave to many vile and horrible deeds—they only made the Allies more deter-mined to win the war.

The War in As wonderful as this new warfare under the Air. the sea was the war in the air. From the very first a few airplanes were used for observation and for bombarding. German air-raids were made on Paris in 1914, and at intervals from the beginning of 1915 Zeppelins and, later, other types of air craft, flew over to England, and in the course of the war killed and wounded a large number of men, women and children. The Allies at length made reprisals, but aimed at points of military importance.


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