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356   CANADIAN HISTORY 1.OR BOYS AND GIRLS.

and Roumania, which declared war on Germany and her allies at the end of August, 1916, was at the feet of her enemies before the close of the year. Early in 1915 a combined French and British fleet had tried to force a way through the Dardanelles with a view to the capture of Constantinople. Then troops were landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula, only to be withdrawn in December, after gaining practically nothing, and suffering heavy losses. Here our Australian cousins won imperishable fame.

In the following year a British force, under General Townshend, defeated the Turks at Kut-el-Amara in Mesopotamia. Though ill supplied with food and munitions, the gallant little army next attempted, against overwhelming odds, to reach the famous old city of Bagdad, but had to fall back to Kut, where the whole force was captured.

The war on For years Germany had been building a the Sea. huge fleet, but throughout the war it made no serious attempt to dispute the command of the sea with Great Britain's famous navy. At first some German cruisers did a good deal of harm to trading ships, but, one by one, these raiders were destroyed. On Nov-ember 1st, 1914, two British cruisers, the Hope and the Monmouth, were sunk 'in action off the coast of Chili, near Coronel, and amongst those lost were four Canadian midshipmen. But on December 8th, Admiral Sturdee's fleet attacked a German squadron near the Falk-land Islands and sank four cruisers. In the same month several German cruisers shelled Scarborough and other Yorkshire coast towns, killing over one hundred civilians.

The Battle The most important naval engagement of of Jutland. the war was the Battle of utland, on May 31st, 1916, in which the British lost 6 cruisers, 8 de-


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