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End of the   The terrible civil war in America ended

American   early in 1865. The Northern States were

War. victorious, the Union was unbroken, and the fearful curse of slavery had been swept from the land; but a few days after the Southern States laid down their arms, President Lincoln was basely murdered. In Canada bells were tolled and flags hung half-mast high in token of sympathy for the sorrowing nation.

Nevertheless, the. relations between Canada and the United States were still not altogether friendly. The claims of the Americans against England for injuries done to their trading ships by the Alabama and other piratical vessels were still unsettled, and there was some danger that war might result.

The   No doubt it was partly owing to anger Reciprocity against England that the American govern-


ment now gave notice of its wish to put an end to the Reciprocity Treaty, which had been in force since 1855. A great trade between the United States and the British provinces had sprung up, and the threatened change seemed likely to have a most disturbing effect on the business of the latter. Some people, indeed, talked as if it meant utter ruin. But, though the governments of the British provinces joined in an attempt to obtain a renewal of the agreement, they were not successful, and in March, 1866, the treaty came to an end.

Owing to a difference of opinion with the other


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