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Party Strife. In 1861 a census was taken in Canada

that is, the people were counted—and it was found that the tipper province had 300.000 more people than the lower province. The Reformers now agitated more strongly than before for " rep. by pop." In the summer there was a general election, but the Reformers and Conservatives still proved nearly equal in number, and government was as difficult as ever. The next two years and a half was a gloomy time in our history. Put when the prospect seemed blackest a new light dawned, and out of the darkness and confusion sprang the beginnings of a truer national life.

In October, 1861, Lord -Monck, an Irish Lord Monck. nobleman, was appointed governor-general. When he reached Canada the danger of war between the United States and England was very great.

A Gloomy   Meanwhile. the bitter though bloodless

outlook. strife between the political parties of Canada grew hotter than ever. In 1862 the Conservatives resigned, after being defeated on a bill providing for the defence of the country. Then the Reformers tried to carry on the government. but, after a few troublous months, during which parliament was dissolved, though it had not sat out half its time, they in their turn were driven from power.

At the beginning of 1864, Sir Etienne Tache and John A. Macdonald formed a Conservative government. But even at first their supporters barely outnumbered those against them, and in a very short time they were


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